New Publication Explores the Right to Seeds in Africa

6 March 2023

Our new Briefing The Right to Seeds in Africa – authored by Dr Karine Peschard, Dr Christophe Golay and Lulbahri Araya – explores the implications of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas (UNDROP) for the right to seeds in Africa.

‘For too long, peasant seed systems in Africa have been neglected and marginalized by laws, regulations and public policies geared toward the needs and interests of the corporate sector. The implementation of UNDROP represents a unique opportunity to redress this imbalance and is essential for the protection of the lives and livelihoods of hundreds of millions of African peasants’ explains Dr Golay, Senior Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy.

‘It is also in the interest of all, to ensure the rights to food and food sovereignty, preserve crop biodiversity, and fight climate change’ he adds.

Identifying Challenges and Positive Developments

The publication – the first of its kind – explores the implications of UNDROP for the right to seeds for African countries.

After providing an overview of the right to seeds in international law and the main provisions of UNDROP related to the right to seeds and corresponding states’ obligations, it identifies the main challenges to the protection of the right to seeds in Africa, as well as positive legal mobilizations and policy and legislative reforms.

‘Mali provides an example of what can be achieved when peasants and their organizations have the opportunity to meaningfully engage in participatory processes. Since 2016, peasants’ organizations and allied NGOs have framed the right to seeds as a collective right grounded in the already recognized customary rights to land and natural resources, and are pushing for legal reform, including the official recognition of peasant seed systems’ underlines Dr Peschard, Associate Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy.

‘Ethiopia is another example of a country that recognizes the collective rights of local communities over their genetic resources and community knowledge, and that protects the right of smallholder farmers and pastoral communities to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seeds of any variety on the non-commercial market’, explains Lulbahri Araya, former LLM student at the Geneva Academy.

But, cautions Dr Peschard, ‘Despite these positive developments, there is a strong push in Africa to adopt intellectual property norms of plant variety protection modelled on UPOV 1991 and to pass commercially-oriented seed laws, both of which are detrimental to peasant seed systems and represent a direct violation of peasants’ right to seeds as enshrined in UNDROP’.

A Timely Publication

The briefing aims to provide input for the revision of seed laws, regulations and policies at the national, regional and continental levels in Africa.

It is especially timely given that many African countries are in the process of revising their seed legislation, and that the African Union has launched an initiative aimed at harmonizing seed laws through the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).

‘Our recommendations will therefore be of interest to public officials from ministries and government agencies responsible for developing and implementing seed laws, regulations and policies, as well as to civil society actors, including peasants’ organizations, in their advocacy work in defence of peasants’ right to seeds’ explains Dr Golay.

This publication forms part of our research on the rights of peasants.


Open dump's view from the sky News

New Publication Details the Contours and Next Steps for the Right to a Healthy Environment

9 January 2023

Our new publication Human Rights and the Environment explores the implications of the recently recognised right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment, with a focus on the UN Human Rights Council and the UN General Assembly.

Read more


New Website on the UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants

12 December 2022

On this 4th anniversary of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas, we are launching – with FIAN International, La Via Campesina and CETIM – a new website dedicated to this Declaration.

Read more

African workers are picking out fresh coffee beans at washing station Event

Le Droit aux Semences en Afrique

20 June 2023, 16:00-18:00

Cette conférence co-organisée avec Swissaid et CROPS4HD – qui se tiendra en français en présentiel et en ligne – vise à approfondir la réflexion autour du droit aux semences en Afrique.

Read more

Open dump Training

Protecting Human Rights and the Environment

18-22 September 2023

This training course will explore the major international and regional instruments for the promotion of human rights, as well as with their implementation and enforcement mechanisms; and provide practical insights into the different UN human rights mechanisms pertinent to advancing environmental issues and protecting environmental human rights defenders.

Read more

Wheat field Project

The Right to Seeds in Europe

Started in January 2018

The project will notably identify the main opportunities and obstacles to protect the right to seeds in Europe. It will also discuss how to promote changes in European laws, policies and trade agreements to ensure that they do not infringe, but facilitate the realization of peasants’ right to seeds.

Read more

Plastic pollution on an Italian shore Project

The Domestication of the Right to a Healthy Environment

Started in January 2022

This research aims at mainstreaming the right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment and the protection it affords in the work of the UN Human Rights Council, its Special Procedures and Universal Periodic Review, as well as in the work of the UN General Assembly and UN treaty bodies.

Read more

Cover of the publication Publication

Briefing N° 22: The Right to Seeds in Africa

published on February 2023

Christophe Golay, Karine Peschard, Lulbahri Araya

Read more